The Industrial Revolution began in Britain, which was where the workers first organized themselves into groups to put pressure on factory owners and governments. Some of the movements which were born were:

Luddism: At the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, new technologies made skilled workers lose their jobs in the textile industry. In response, some of them (guided by a legendary figure called Ned Ludd) destroyed factory machines.

Chartism: It was the first organized labour movement with political goals. They demanded labour rights and universal suffrage, since at that time workers were not allowed to vote.
It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and it was particularly important in Northern England, the East Midlands, the Staffordshire Potteries and the South Wales Valleys.

Trade Unions: At the beginning of the 19th century workers formed mutual aid societies, which helped their members in case of illness or unemployment. The right of assembly was granted in Great Britain in 1824, and after that, the first trade unions appeared.
These associations demanded better salaries, shorter working days, the end of child labour, etc. Their main means of pressure was the strike, in which workers refused to work until certain conditions were met.