The working conditions in factories during the Industrial Revolution were appalling, workers had no basic rights, and there was no universal suffrage. All of these were illustrative of the Industrial Revolution's impact on economic, social and political exploitation of the proletariat. These circumstances favoured the rise of two political movements: Marxism and Anarchism.

Marxism: It is named after one of its founders (Karl Marx). Together with Friedrich Engels, Marx published the Communist Manifesto in 1848. According to them, there was a class struggle between the bourgeoisie (the oppressors) and the proletariat (the oppressed) and they felt that the Industrial Revolution had accelerated that process.
Marx proposed a revolution in order to destroy capitalism and give power to workers. There should first be a stage of proletarian dictatorship, in which the state would control society. Then, a communist society could be established without social classes or private property.

Anarchism: The frenchman Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and the Russian Mikhail Bakunin were the founders of Anarchism, which derives from the Greek word anarkhia, meaning "no rules".
The central ideas in anarchism are the belief in individual freedom and the denial of any authority, particularly that of the state. They believed in the collective use of property and rejected political parties and elections. Instead, they favoured voluntary cooperation, the use of communes and direct action.